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Jerin tsarin kogun dangane da tsawonsu

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Kogin Nilu kamar yadda aka gani daga wani jirgin ruwa da ke tsakanin Luxor da Aswan a Masar

Wannan jerin kogunan da sukafi kowanne tsayi a Duniya. Sun haɗa da tsarin kogi da ke da tsayin sama da kilomita 1,000 kilometres (620 mi).

Ma'anar tsayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai abubuwa da dama, kamar tantance tushe,[1] ganewa ko ma'anar bakin ruwan, da kuma ma'aunin gwaji,[2] na tsawon kogin tsakanin tushe da baki, waɗanda ke ƙayyade ma'anar "tsayin kogi". Sakamakon haka, ma'aunin gwada koguna da yawa sun kasance mafi yawansu kintatawa ne (duba kuma paradox na bakin ruwa). Musamman, da kuma alama akwai sabani game da kogin da yafi kowanne tsayi a duniya a tsakanin kogin Nilu[3] ko Amazon[4] A al'adance ana la'akari da kogin Nilu ya fi tsayi, amma a cikin shekarar 2007 da 2008 wasu masana kimiyya sun yi iƙirarin cewa Amazon ya fi tsayi[5][6][7] ta hanyar auna kogin tare da maƙwabtan Pará da ke kusa da tashar ruwa mafi tsayi.[8] Wani labarin da aka yi bita wanda aka buga a shekara ta 2009 a cikin International Journal of Digital Earth ya kammala cewa kogin Nilu ya fi tsayi.[9]

Ko da idan akwai taswirori dalla-dalla, ma'aunin tsayi ba koyaushe yake zama daidai ba. Kogin yana iya samun tashoshi da yawa, ko anabranches. Tsawon zai iya dogara ne akan ko an auna tsakiya ko gefen kogin. Wataƙila ba a bayyana yadda za a auna tsawon ta tafki ko rijiyoyi ba. Canje-canje na yanayi da na shekara-shekara na iya canza koguna da tafkuna. Sauran abubuwan da za su iya canza tsawon kogin sun hada da zagayowar zaizayar kasa da ambaliya, madatsun ruwa, lefes, da kuma tashoshi. Bugu da ƙari, tsayin ma'ana zai iya canzawa sosai a tsawon lokaci saboda cutoffs daga Allah ko kuma wanda mutum yayi, lokacin da wani sabon tashar ya yanke a kan ƙasa, yana ƙetare babban kogi mai lankwasa. Misali, saboda cutoffs 18 da aka kirkira tsakanin 1766 da 1885, tsawon kogin Mississippi daga Alkahira, Illinois zuwa New Orleans, Louisiana, an rage shi da 218 miles (351 km).[10]

Waɗannan wurare suna sa yayi wahala, watakila ma ba zai yiwu ba, don samun daidaitaccen ma'auni na tsawon kogi. Bambancin daidai da asali kuma yana sa wahalar yin kwatancen tsayi tsakanin koguna daban-daban ba tare da an samu sabani ba.

Jerin tsarin kogin ya fi tsayin kilomita 1,000[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ga mafi yawan koguna, kafofin daban-daban sun bayar bayanai masu karo da juna kan tsawon kogunansu. Bayanin da ke cikin tushe daban-daban yana tsakanin alamar baka.

Labarin launuka da aka yi amfani da su a babban tebur, ta nahiya
Maɓallin launi na nahiyar
Afirka Asiya Ostiraliya Turai Amirka ta Arewa Kudancin Amurka
Rank River Length (km) Length (miles) Drainage area
(km2)
[Ana bukatan hujja]
Average discharge
(m3/s)
[Ana bukatan hujja]
Outflow Countries in the drainage basin [Ana bukatan hujja]
1. NileWhite NileKageraNyabarongoMwogoRukarara[n 1] 6,650[3]
(7,088)[9]
4,130[3]
(4,404)[9]
3,254,555 2,800 Mediterranean Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Egypt, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan
2. AmazonUcayaliTamboEneMantaro[n 1] 6,400[4]
(6,992)[9]
3,976[4]
(4,345)[9]
7,000,000[4] 209,000 Atlantic Ocean Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Guyana
3. YangtzeJinshaTongtianDangqu
(Chang Jiang)
6,300
(6,418)
3,917
(3,988)
1,800,000 30,166 East China Sea China
4. MississippiMissouriJeffersonBeaverheadRed RockHell Roaring 6,275
3,902
2,980,000 16,792 Gulf of Mexico United States (98.5%), Canada (1.5%)
5. YeniseyAngaraSelengaIder 5,539
3,445
2,580,000 18,050 Kara Sea Russia (97%), Mongolia (2.9%)
6. Yellow River
(Huang He)
5,464
3,395
745,000 2,571 Bohai Sea China
7. ObIrtysh 5,410 3,364 2,990,000 12,475 Gulf of Ob Russia, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia
8. Río de la PlataParanáRio Grande[15] 4,880
3,030
2,582,672 22,000 Río de la Plata Brazil (46.7%), Argentina (27.7%), Paraguay (13.5%), Bolivia (8.3%), Uruguay (3.8%)
9. CongoChambeshi
(Zaïre)
4,700
2,922
3,680,000 41,800 Atlantic Ocean Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Cameroon, Zambia, Burundi, Rwanda
10. AmurArgunKherlen
(Heilong Jiang)
4,444 2,763 1,855,000 11,400 Sea of Okhotsk Russia, China, Mongolia
11. Lena 4,400
2,736
2,490,000 15,500 Laptev Sea Russia
12. Mekong
(Lancang Jiang)
4,350 2,705 810,000 16,000 South China Sea China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam
13. MackenzieSlavePeaceFinlay 4,241
2,637
1,790,000 10,300 Beaufort Sea Canada
14. Niger 4,200
2,611
2,090,000 5,589 Gulf of Guinea Nigeria (26.6%), Mali (25.6%), Niger (23.6%), Algeria (7.6%), Guinea (4.5%), Cameroon (4.2%), Burkina Faso (3.9%), Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Chad
15. BrahmaputraYarlung Tsangpo 3,969 2,466 712,035 19,800[16][17] Ganges India (58.0%), China (19.7%), Nepal (9.0%), Bangladesh (6.6%), Disputed India/China (4.2%), Bhutan (2.4%)
16. MurrayDarlingCulgoaBalonneCondamine 3,672[18] 2,282
1,061,000 767 Southern Ocean Australia
17. TocantinsAraguaia 3,650 2,270 950,000 13,598 Atlantic Ocean (Marajó Bay), Amazon Delta Brazil
18. Volga 3,645 2,266 1,380,000 8,080 Caspian Sea Russia
19. IndusSênggê Zangbo 3,610 2,250 960,000 7,160 Arabian Sea Pakistan (93%), India and China
20. Shatt al-ArabEuphratesMurat 3,596
2,236
884,000 856 Persian Gulf Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Iran
21. MadeiraMamoréGrandeCaineRocha 3,380 2,100 1,485,200 31,200 Amazon Brazil, Bolivia, Peru
22. Purús 3,211 1,995 63,166 8,400 Amazon Brazil, Peru
23. Yukon 3,185 1,980[19] 850,000 6,210 Bering Sea United States (59.8%), Canada (40.2%)
24. São Francisco 3,180*
(2,900)
1,976*
(1,802)
610,000 3,300 Atlantic Ocean Brazil
25. Syr DaryaNaryn 3,078 1,913 219,000 703 Aral Sea Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
26. Salween
(Nu Jiang)
3,060 1,901 324,000 3,153[20] Andaman Sea China (52.4%), Myanmar (43.9%), Thailand (3.7%)
27. Saint LawrenceNiagaraDetroitSaint ClairSaint MarysSaint LouisNorth (Great Lakes) 3,058 1,900[19] 1,030,000 10,100 Gulf of Saint Lawrence Canada (52.1%), United States (47.9%)
28. Rio Grande 3,057 1,900[19] 570,000 82 Gulf of Mexico United States (52.1%), Mexico (47.9%)
29. Lower Tunguska 2,989 1,857 473,000 3,600 Yenisei Russia
30. DanubeBreg (Donau, Dunăre, Duna, Dunav, Dunaj) 2,888* 1,795* 817,000 7,130 Black Sea Romania (28.9%), Hungary (11.7%), Austria (10.3%), Serbia (10.3%), Germany (7.5%), Slovakia (5.8%), Bulgaria (5.2%), Croatia (4.5%), Ukraine (3.8%)
31. Irrawaddy RiverN'Mai RiverDulong RiverKelaoluoGada Qu 2,809* 1,745.8* 404,200* 13,000* Andaman Sea China, Myanmar
32. Zambezi
(Zambesi)
2,740* 1,703* 1,330,000 4,880 Mozambique Channel Zambia (41.6%), Angola (18.4%), Zimbabwe (15.6%), Mozambique (11.8%), Malawi (8.0%), Tanzania (2.0%), Namibia, Botswana
33. Vilyuy 2,720 1,700 454,000 1,480 Lena Russia
34. GangesHooghlyPadma (Ganga) 2,704[21] 1,690 1,024,000 12,037[22] Bay of Bengal India, Bangladesh, Nepal
35. Amu DaryaPanj 2,620 1,628 534,739 1,400 Aral Sea Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan
36. Japurá (Rio Yapurá) 2,615* 1,625* 242,259 6,000 Amazon Brazil, Colombia
37. NelsonSaskatchewan 2,570 1,597 1,093,000 2,575 Hudson Bay Canada, United States
38. Paraguay (Rio Paraguay) 2,549 1,584 900,000 4,300 Paraná Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina
39. Kolyma 2,513 1,562 644,000 3,800 East Siberian Sea Russia
40. Pilcomayo 2,500 1,553 270,000 Paraguay Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia
41. Upper ObKatun 2,490 1,547 Ob Russia
42. Ishim 2,450 1,522 177,000 56 Irtysh Kazakhstan, Russia
43. Ural 2,428 1,509 237,000 475 Caspian Sea Russia, Kazakhstan
44. Juruá 2,410 1,498 200,000 6,000 Amazon Peru, Brazil
45. Arkansas 2,348 1,459 505,000
(435,122)
1,066 Mississippi United States
46. Colorado (western U.S.) 2,333 1,450 390,000 1,200 Gulf of California United States, Mexico
47. Olenyok 2,292 1,424 219,000 1,210 Laptev Sea Russia
48. Dnieper 2,287 1,421 516,300 1,670 Black Sea Ukraine, Belarus, Russia
49. Aldan 2,273 1,412 729,000 5,060 Lena Russia
50. UbangiUele[23] 2,270 1,410 772,800 4,000 Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo
51. Negro 2,250 1,398 720,114 26,700 Amazon Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia
52. Columbia 2,250 (1,953) 1,398 (1,214) 415,211 7,500 Pacific Ocean United States, Canada
53. PearlXi-Xun-Qian-Hongshui-Nanpan 2,200 1,376 437,000 13,600 South China Sea China (98.5%), Vietnam (1.5%)
54. Red (USA) 2,188 1,360 78,592 875 Mississippi United States
55. Kasai 2,153 1,338 880,200 10,000 Congo Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo
56. OhioAllegheny 2,102 1,306 490,603 7,957 Mississippi United States
57. Orinoco 2,101 1,306 1,380,000 33,000 Atlantic Ocean Venezuela, Colombia, Guyana
58. Tarim 2,100 1,305 557,000 Lop Nur China
59. Xingu 2,100 1,305 Amazon Brazil
60. Orange 2,092 1,300     Atlantic Ocean South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho
61. Brazos-Double Mountain Fork-North Fork-Blackwater Draw 2,060 1,280[24] Gulf of Mexico United States
62. Northern Salado 2,010 1,249 Paraná Argentina
63. Vitim 1,978 1,229 Lena Russia
64. Tigris 1,950 1,212 Shatt al-Arab Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran
65. Songhua 1,927 1,197 Amur China
66. Tapajós 1,900 1,181 Amazon Brazil
67. Don 1,870 1,162 425,600 935 Sea of Azov Russia, Ukraine
68. Stony Tunguska 1,865 1,159 240,000 Yenisey Russia
69. Pechora 1,809 1,124 322,000 4,100 Barents Sea Russia
70. Kama 1,805 1,122 507,000 4,100 Volga Russia
71. Limpopo 1,800 1,118 413,000 Indian Ocean Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Botswana
72. Chulym 1,799 1,118 134,000 Ob Russia
73. Guaporé (Itenez) 1,749 1,087 Mamoré Brazil, Bolivia
74. Indigirka 1,726 1,072 360,400 1,810 East Siberian Sea Russia
75. Snake 1,670 1,038 279,719 1,611 Columbia United States
76. Senegal 1,641 1,020 419,659 Atlantic Ocean Guinea, Senegal, Mali, Mauritania
77. Uruguay 1,610 1,000 370,000 Atlantic Ocean Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil
78. Blue Nile 1,600 994 326,400 Nile Ethiopia, Sudan
78. Churchill 1,600 994 Hudson Bay Canada
78. KhatangaKotuy 1,600 994 Laptev Sea Russia
78. Okavango (Cubango) 1,600 994 Okavango Delta Namibia, Angola, Botswana
78. Volta 1,600 994 Gulf of Guinea Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin
83. Beni 1,599 994 283,350 8,900 Madeira Bolivia
84. Platte 1,594 990 Missouri United States
85. Tobol 1,591 989 Irtysh Kazakhstan, Russia
86. Alazeya 1,590 988 64,700 East Siberian Sea Russia
87. JubbaShebelle 1,580* 982* Indian Ocean Ethiopia, Somalia
88. Içá (Putumayo) 1,575 979 Amazon Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador
89. Magdalena 1,550 963 263,858 9,000 Caribbean Colombia
90. Han 1,532 952 Yangtze China
91. Kura/Mt'k'vari 1,515 941 188,400 575 Caspian Sea Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan
92. Oka 1,500 932 245,000 1,258 Volga Russia
93. Upper Murray 1,500[25] 932
Lower Murray Australia
94. Guaviare 1,497 930 Orinoco Colombia
95. Pecos 1,490 926 Rio Grande United States
96. Murrumbidgee River 1,485 [18] 923 84,917 120 Murray River Australia
97. Upper YeniseyLittle Yenisey (Kaa-Hem) 1,480 920 Yenisey Russia, Mongolia
98. Godavari 1,465 910 312,812 3,061 Bay of Bengal India
99. Colorado (Texas) 1,438 894 Gulf of Mexico United States
100. Upper Tocantins 1,427 887 Tocantins Brazil
101. Belaya 1,420 882 142,000 858 Kama Russia
101. CooperBarcoo 1,420 880 Lake Eyre Australia
103. Marañón 1,415 879 Amazon Peru
104. Dniester 1,411 (1,352) 877 (840) 72,100 310 Black Sea Ukraine, Moldova
105. Benue 1,400 870 Niger Cameroon, Nigeria
105. Chari 1,400[26] 870 Lake Chad Chad, Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria
105. Ili (Yili) 1,400 870 Lake Balkhash China, Kazakhstan
105. WarburtonGeorgina 1,400 870 365,000 Lake Eyre Australia
108. Sutlej 1,372 852 Chenab China, India, Pakistan
109. Yamuna 1,370 851 366,223 2,950 Ganges India
109. Vyatka 1,370 851 129,000 890 Kama Russia
111. Fraser 1,368 850 220,000 3,475 Pacific Ocean Canada, United States[27]
112. Grande 1,360 845 Paraná Brazil
113. Liao-Xiliao-Laoha 1,345 836 Bohai Sea China
114. Lachlan River 1,339 [18] 832 84,700 49 Murrumbidgee River Australia
115. Narmada 1,333 [28] 815 98,796 1,447 Arabian Sea India
116. Yalong 1,323 822 Yangtze China
117. Iguaçu 1,320 820 Paraná Brazil, Argentina
117. Olyokma 1,320 820 Lena Russia
119. Northern DvinaSukhona 1,302 809 357,052 3,332 White Sea Russia
120. Krishna 1,300 808 Bay of Bengal India
120. Iriri 1,300 808 Xingu Brazil
122. Lomami[29] 1,280 795 Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
123. Ottawa 1,271 790 146,300 1,950 Saint Lawrence Canada
124. Rio Grande de Santiago-Lerma 1,270 789 119,543 Pacific Ocean Mexico
125. ElbeVltava 1,252 778 148,268 711 North Sea Germany, Czech Republic
126. Zeya 1,242 772 Amur Russia
127. Juruena 1,240 771 Tapajós Brazil
128. Upper Mississippi 1,236 768 Mississippi United States
129. Rhine 1,233 768 185,000 [30] 2,330 North Sea Germany (57.3%), Switzerland (15.1%), Netherlands (12.3%), France (12.2%), Luxembourg (1.4%), Austria (1.3%), Belgium (0.4%), Liechtenstein (0.1%), Italy (0.03%)
130. Athabasca 1,231 765 95,300 Mackenzie Canada
131. Canadian 1,223 760 Arkansas United States
132. North Saskatchewan 1,220 758 Saskatchewan Canada
133. VistulaNarew-Bug 1,213 754 194,424 1,080 Baltic Sea Poland, Belarus, Ukraine
134. Vaal 1,210 752 Orange South Africa
135. Shire 1,200 746 Zambezi Mozambique, Malawi
135. Ogooué (or Ogowe) 1,200 746 223,856 4,706 Atlantic Ocean Gabon, Republic of the Congo
137. Nen
(Nonni)
1,190 739 Songhua China
138. Kızıl River 1,182 734 115,000 400 Black Sea Turkey
139. Markha 1,181 734 99,000 405 Vilyuy Russia
140. Green 1,175 730 Colorado (western U.S.) United States
141. Milk 1,173 729

Missouri

United States, Canada
142. Mun - Chi 1,162 722 Mekong River Thailand
142. White 1,162 722[31] Mississippi United States
144. Chindwin 1,158 720 Ayeyarwady Myanmar
145. Sankuru 1,150 715 Kasai Democratic Republic of the Congo
145. Wu 1,150 715 80,300 1,108 Yangtze China
147. Red (Asia) 1,149 714 143,700 2,640 Gulf of Tonkin China, Vietnam
148. James (Dakotas) 1,143 710 Missouri United States
148. Kapuas 1,143 710 98,749 6,507 Natuna Sea Indonesia
150. Desna 1,130 702 88,900 360 Dnieper Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
150. Helmand 1,130 702 Hamun-i-Helmand Afghanistan, Iran
150. Madre de Dios 1,130 702 125,000 4,915 Beni Peru, Bolivia
150. Tietê 1,130 702 Paraná Brazil
150. Vychegda 1,130 702 121,000 1160 Northern Dvina Russia
155. Sepik 1,126 700 77,700 Pacific Ocean Papua New Guinea, Indonesia
156. Cimarron 1,123 698 Arkansas United States
157. Anadyr 1,120 696 Gulf of Anadyr Russia
157. Paraíba do Sul 1,120 696 Atlantic Ocean Brazil
159. Jialing River 1,119 695 Yangtze China
160. Liard 1,115 693 Mackenzie Canada
161. Mamberamo River 1,112 691 78,992 5,923 Pacific Ocean Indonesia
162. Cumberland 1,105 687 46,830 862 Mississippi United States
163. Huallaga 1,100 684 Marañón Peru
163. Kwango 1,100 684 263,500 2,700 Kasai Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo
163. Draa 1,100 684 Atlantic Ocean Morocco
166. Gambia 1,094 680 Atlantic Ocean The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea
167. Tyung 1,092 679 49,800 Vilyuy Russia
168. Barito River 1,090 680 81,675 5,497 Java Sea Indonesia
169. Chenab 1,086 675 Indus India, Pakistan
170. Yellowstone 1,080 671 114,260 Missouri United States
170. Ghaghara 1,080 671 127,950 2,990 Ganges India, Nepal, China
172. Huai River 1,078 670 270,000 1,110 Yangtze China
173. Aras 1,072 665 102,000 285 Kura Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran
174. Chu 1,067 663 62,500 none Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan
175. Seversky Donets 1,053 (1,078) 654 (670) 98,900 159 Don Russia, Ukraine
176. Bermejo 1,050 652 Paraguay Argentina, Bolivia
176. Fly 1,050 652 Gulf of Papua Papua New Guinea, Indonesia
176. Kuskokwim 1,050 652 Bering Sea United States
179. Tennessee 1,049 652 Ohio United States
180. OderWarta 1,045 649 118,861 550 Baltic Sea Poland, Germany, Czech Republic
181. Aruwimi[29] 1,030 640 Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
182. Chambal 1,024 636 Yamuna India
183. Daugava 1,020 634 87,900 678 Gulf of Riga Latvia, Belarus, Russia
184. Gila 1,015 631 Colorado (western U.S.) United States
185. Loire 1,012 629 115,271 840 Atlantic Ocean France
186. Essequibo 1,010 628 Atlantic Ocean Guyana
186. Khopyor 1,010 628 61,100 150 Don Russia
188. Tagus
(Tajo/Tejo)
1,006 625 80,100 444 Atlantic Ocean Spain, Portugal
189. Flinders River 1,004 [18] 624 109,000 122 Gulf of Carpentaria Australia

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk tsawon kogin da akayiwa alamar asterisk (*) to ya kasance matsakaicin tsawo da kafofi daban-daban suke bayar. Idan kuwa akwai bambanci sosai a tsakanin bayanan da kafofif daban-daba n suka bayar, to an lissafosu duka. Amma idan kuwa tsayi da kafofi na mataki na biyu suka bayara sun zama daya, to ana sanya matsakaicinsu sannan kuma ayi masa alamar asterick.

  • Masana kimiyya sunyi sabani akan wani kogi ne yafi kowanne tsawo a duniya. A al'adance, ana daukar Kogin Nile a matsayin mafi tsayi, amma bayanan kwana-kwanan nan sun nuna cewa Kogin Amazon na iya fin shi tsayi. Bambanci a tsakanin tsayin Kogin Amazon ya danganta ne daga cewa ko za'a sanya sashin Ilha de Marajó da ke gabar Kogin Amazon a matsayin bangare na Amazon, ko kuma a matsayin bangare na daban na sashin Kogin Tocantins.Sabbin hujjoji da suka soma daga (ranar 16 June 2007) wanda aka samo daga Andes, ya nuna cewa Amazon yafi Nile tsayi da kilomita 100km, da kan ruwanta mafi tsayi a koramar Carhuasanta, wacce ta soma daga kudanci Peru, a yankin arewacin dutsen Nevado Mismi sannan yana kwarara zuwa cikin Río Apurímac.[32] Amma kuma, an riga an san asalin Nevado Mismi tun tsawon shekaru goma da suka gabata (see [http://www.palkiewicz.com/ekspedycje/index.php?p=zrodl_amaz Jacek Palkiewicz[33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]), sannan kuma ma'auni da aka gwada ta tauraron dan-Adam daga wannan wuri zuwa gabar Amazon ya bada akalla abun da bai wuce kilomita 6,400km ba.
  • Gabaki daya anyi amfani da sunayen kogunan na yau da kullum. Yawancin sunayen sun kasance sunaye ne na gargajiya na harshe ko kuma anyi amfani da kwatankwanci sunan.
The Mississippi River just north of St. Louis
Saint Lawrence River along the New York-Quebec border

Kara dubawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Where Does the Amazon River Begin?". National Geographic News. 2014-02-15. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
  2. for more on this, see coastline paradox
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Nile River". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Amazon River". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  5. Amazon Longer Than Nile River, Scientists Say Archived 15 ga Augusta, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Amazon river 'longer than Nile'". BBC News. 16 June 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Studies from INPE indicate that the Amazon River is 140km longer than the Nile". Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. Archived from the original on 11 April 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "How Long Is the Amazon River?". Encyclopedia Britannica (in Turanci). Retrieved 2018-12-24.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Liu, Shaochuang; Lu, P; Liu, D; Jin, P; Wang, W (2009-03-01). "Pinpointing the sources and measuring the lengths of the principal rivers of the world". Int. J. Digital Earth. 2 (1): 80–87. Bibcode:2009IJDE....2...80L. doi:10.1080/17538940902746082. S2CID 27548511.
  10. J.C. Kammerer (1 September 2005). "Largest Rivers in the United States". US Geological Survey. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named britannica-nile
  12. 12.0 12.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named britannica-amazon
  13. Roach, John (18 June 2007). "Amazon Longer Than Nile River, Scientists Say". National Geographic. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named liu-etal-river-length
  15. "Río de la Plata". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  16. "Scientists pinpoint sources of four major international rivers". Xinhua News Agency. 22 August 2011. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  17. "Brahmaputra River". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 "Longest Rivers". Geoscience Australia. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 J.C. Kammerer (1 September 2005). "Largest Rivers in the United States". US Geological Survey. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  20. Syvitski, James P. M., Vörösmarty, Charles J., Kettner, Albert J., Green, Pamela (2005). "Impact of Humans on the Flux of Terrestrial Sediment to the Global Coastal Ocean". Science. 308 (5720): 376–80. Bibcode:2005Sci...308..376S. doi:10.1126/science.1109454. PMID 15831750. S2CID 11382265. Archived from the original on 2006-09-19. Retrieved 2006-02-27.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. Parua, Pranab Kumar (3 January 2010). The Ganga: water use in the Indian subcontinent. Springer. p. 272. ISBN 978-90-481-3102-0. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  22. Ganges–Farakka
  23. Bossche, J.P. vanden; G. M. Bernacsek (1990). Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa, Volume 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 338. ISBN 978-92-5-102983-1.
  24. Kammerer, J.C. (1987). "Largest Rivers in the United States". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2006-07-15. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  25. "Longest Rivers". Murray Darling Basin Authority. 24 November 2015. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  26. "Chari River". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 21 May 2023. Retrieved 25 May 2023.
  27. "The Chilliwack River Valley: An Outdoor Enthusiast's Paradise". Camping & RVing BC (in Turanci). Camping and RVing British Columbia Coalition. 10 October 2017. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  28. "Narmada Basin" (PDF). India WRIS. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Bossche, J.P. vanden; G. M. Bernacsek (1990). Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa, Volume 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 333. ISBN 978-92-5-102983-1.
  30. If the Meuse is considered a tributary, the Rhine basin is 218,300 km2.
  31. Rogers, Aaron W. "White River - Encyclopedia of Arkansas". www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  32. Daily Telegraph, Monday 18 June 2007, page 18
  33. Daily Telegraph, Monday 18 June 2007, page 18
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  45. Daily Telegraph, Monday 18 June 2007, page 18


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