Yaren Biu–Mandara

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Biu–Mandara
Central Chadic
Geographic distribution Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon
Linguistic classification Tafrusyawit
Subdivisions
  • South
  • Hurza
  • North
Glottolog bium1280[1]
Manyan masu magana da yaren Cadi a Najeriya.

Ana magana da Biu – Mandara ko yaren Cadi ta Tsakiya na dangin Afro-Asiatic a cikin Najeriya, Chadi da Kamaru . Wanda aka fi magana dashi Kamwe, tare da masu magana dashi 300,000.

An sake gina Proto-Central Chadic ta Gravina a (2014). [2]

Harsuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gravina (2014)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gravina (2014) ya rarraba yankin Chadi ta Tsakiya kamar haka, a zaman wani ɓangare na sake gina harshe mai kyau. Haruffa da lambobi a cikin maƙalai suna dacewa da rassa a cikin rarrabuwa na baya. Mafi girman canje-canje shine watsewa da sake sanya harsunan tsohuwar reshen Mafa (A.5) da reshen Mandage (Kotoko) (B.1). [3]

  • Kudu
    • Kudu [4]
      • Bata (A.8)
        • Bata Daidai: Bacama, Bata, Fali, Gude, Gudu, Holma (†), Jimi, Ngwaba (daga A.1 Tera), Nzanyi, Sharwa
        • Tsuvan: Tsuvan, Zizilivakan
      • Daba (A.7)
        • Daba Dace: Daba, Mazagway Hidi
        • Mina: Mina, Mbudum
        • Buwal: Buwal, Gavar
      • Mafa (= Kudu A.5 Mafa (d)): Mafa, Mefele, Cuvok
      • Tera (A.1):
        • Gabashin Tera: Boga, Ga'anda, Hwana
        • (Yammacin Tera): Jara, Tera
      • Sukur (A.6)
  • Hurza
    • Hurza (daga A.5 Mafa): Vame, Mbuko
  • Arewa
    • Margi – Mandara – Mofu
      • Margi (A.2)
        • Bura: Bura, Cibak, Putai, Nggwahyi
        • Margi Dace: Kilba, Margi Kudu, Margi
      • Mandara (A.4):
        • Wandala: Mandara ( Malgwa ), Glavda
        • Dghwede: Cineni, Dghwede, Guduf, Gava, Gvoko
        • Podoko: Podoko, Matal (daga A.5 Mafa)
      • Mofu (wani yanki na Kudu A.5 Mafa)
        • Tokombere: Ouldeme, Mada, Muyang, Molokwo
        • Meri: Zulgo, Gemzek, Merey, Dugwor
        • Ingantaccen Mofu: Mofu ta Arewa, Mofu-Gudur
    • Maroua
      • Maroua (wani yanki na Kudu A.5 Mafa (c)): Giziga ta Arewa, Giziga ta Kudu, Mbazla
    • Lamang
      • Lamang (Yammacin A.4 Wandala): Lamang, Hdi, Mabas
    • Higi
      • Higi (A.3): Bana, Hya, Psikyɛ, Kamwe, Kirya-Konzel
    • Musgum – Arewacin Kotoko
      • Tsibirin Kotoko: Buduma
      • Kotoko ta Arewa: Mpade, Afaɗə, Malgbe, Maltam
      • Musgum (B.2): Musgum, Mbara, Muskum (†)
    • Kotoko Center
      • Cibiyar Kotoko: Lagwan, Mser
    • Kotoko ta Kudu
      • Kotoko ta Kudu: Zina, Mazera
    • Gidar

Ba a rarraba Jilbe ba, saboda babu wasu tushe.

Blench (2006)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rassan Biu – Mandara a al'adance suna zuwa ko dai sunaye ko haruffa da lambobi a cikin tsarin fasali. Blench (2006) ya tsara su kamar haka: [5]

  • Tera (A.1): Tera, Pidlimdi (Hinna), Jara, Ga'anda, Gabin, Boga, Ngwaba, Hwana
  • Bura – Higi
    • Bura (A.2): Bura-Pabir (Bura), Cibak (Kyibaku), Nggwahyi, Huba (Kilba), Putai (Marghi West), Marghi Central (Margi, Margi Babal), Marghi South
    • ? Kofa
    • Higi (A.3): Kamwə ( Psikyɛ, Higi), Bana, Hya , ? Kirya-Konzəl
  • Wandala – Mafa
    • Wandala (Mandara) (A.4)
      • Gabas: Wandala (Mura, Mandara, Malgwa), Glavda (Gəlvaxdaxa)
      • Parəkwa (Podoko)
      • Yammaci: Gəvoko, Guduf-Gava ( Cineni ), Dghweɗe, Hdi (Xədi, Hedi, Tur), Lamang, Woga, Vemgo, Mabas
      • Sukur (Sakwun, A.6)
    • Mafa (A.5)
      • Arewa maso gabashin Mafa: Vame (Pəlasla), Mbuko, Gaduwa
      • Matal (Muktele)
      • Kudu Mafa
        • (a) Wuzlam (Ouldémé), Muyang, Maɗa, Məlokwo
        • (b) Zəlgwa-Minew, Gemzek, Ɗugwor, Mikere, Merey
        • (c) Giziga ta Arewa, Giziga ta Kudu, Mofu ta Arewa, Mofu-Gudur (Kudancin Mofu), Baldemu (Mbazlam)
        • (d) Cuvok, Mafa, Mefele, Shügule
  • Daba (A.7)
    • Arewa Daba: Buwal (Gadala), Gavar (Kortchi)
    • Kudu Daba: Mina (Besleri, Hina), Daba ( Mazagway ), Mbədam
  • Bata (Gbwata) (A.8): Bacama, Bata (Gbwata), Sharwa, Tsuvan, Gude, Fali na Mubi, Zizilivakan (Ulan Mazhilvən, Fali na Jilbu), Jimi (Jimjimən), Gudu, Holma (†), Nzanyi
  • Harshen (Kotoko) (B.1)
    • Harshen Kudu: Msər (Kousseri), Lagwan (Logone)
    • ? Jilbe
    • Yankin Arewa: Afaɗə, Maslam, Malgbe (Gulfey), Mpadə
  • Buduma (Yedina)
  • Gabas – Tsakiya
    • Gidar (Kaɗa)
    • Munjuk (B.2): Mbara, Muskum (Muzuk) (†), Mpus, Beege (Jafga), Vulum (Mulwi)
    • Mida'a (<B.1): Jina, Majəra

Newman (1977)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin Chadi ta Tsakiya ta Newman (1977):


Sunaye da wurare (Najeriya)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Da ke ƙasa akwai jerin sunayen harshe, yawan jama'a, da wurare (a cikin Najeriya kawai) daga Blench (2019).

Reshe Lambar Wuraren farko
Rarraba rassa na Biu – Mandara a Najeriya
Tera A1 Karamar hukumar Gombi , jihar Adamawa da karamar hukumar Biu , jihar Borno
Bata A8 Mubi LGA, Jihar Adamawa
Higi A3 Michika LGA, Jihar Adamawa
Mandara A4 Karamar hukumar Gwoza , jihar Borno da karamar hukumar Michika , jihar Adamawa

Kudu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Language Branch Cluster Dialects Alternate spellings Own name for language Endonym(s) Other names (location-based) Other names for language Exonym(s) Speakers Location(s) Notes
Daba Daba Daba A single village, less than 1,000. Mostly in Cameroun Adamawa State, Mubi LGA. Between Mubi and Bahuli
Mafa Mafa Mafa (Mofa) in Nigeria. Cameroon dialects divided into West, Central and Eastern. Mofa Matakam (not recommended) 2,000 (1963), 136,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL) Borno State, Gwoza LGA; mainly in Cameroon
Sakun Sukur Sakun, Gemasakun Gә̀mà Sákún Sugur Adikummu Sukur 5,000 (1952); 10,000 (1973 SIL). 7 villages Adamawa State, Madgali LGA
Ga’anda cluster Tera Ga’anda Tlәka’andata pl. Ka’andәca Kaɓәn Mokar [name of the place where the rolling pot stopped] 7,600 (1952); 10,000 (1973 SIL);␣4. Six villages Adamawa State, Gombi LGA
Kaɓәn Tera Ga’anda Gabin Tlәkaɓәnɗa pl. Kaɓәnca 12 villages
Fәrtata Tera Ga’anda Tlәfәrtata pl. Fәrtaca 5 villages
Boga Tera Boka 5 villages Adamawa State, Gombi LGA
Hwana Tera Hona, Hwona 6,604 (1952 W&B); 20,000 (1973 SIL), estimate more than 20,000 (Blench 1987) Adamawa State, Gombi LGA, Guyuk and 30 other villages
Jara Tera Jera 4,000 (SIL) Borno State, Biu LGA; Bauchi State, Ako LGA Also refers to the languages of the Jarawan Bantu group including: the Jarawa cluster, Mbárù, Gùra, Rúhû, Gubi, Dulbu, Láb􀬎̀r, Kulung, and Gwa
Tera cluster Tera Tera 46,000 (SIL); 50,000 (Newman 1970) Borno State, Biu LGA; Gombe State, Gombi LGA, Kwami district, Ako LGA, Yamaltu and Ako districts, Dukku LGA, Funakaye district
Nyimatli Tera Tera Wuyo-Ɓalɓiya-Waɗe; Deba-Zambuk-Hina-Kalshingi-Kwadon [orthography based on this cluster] Yamaltu, Nimalto, Nyemathi Gombe State, Ako, Gombe, Kwami, Funakai, Yamaltu LGAs; Borno State, Ɓayo LGA
Pidlimdi Tera Tera Hinna, Hina, Ghәna Borno State, Biu LGA
Bura Kokura Tera Tera Borno State, Biu LGA
Boga Tera, Eastern Boka Adamawa State, Gombi LGA
Bata cluster Bata Bata
Bwatye Bata Bata Mulyen (Mwulyin), Dong, Opalo, Wa-Duku Gboare, Bwatiye Kwaa–Ɓwaare Ɓwaare Bachama 11,250 (1952) 20,000 (1963) Adamawa State, Numan and Guyuk LGAs, Kaduna State, north east of Kaduna town. Bacama fishermen migrate long distances down the Benue River, with camps as far as the Benue/Niger confluence.
Bata Bata Bata Koboci, Kobotschi (Kobocĩ, Wadi, Zumu (Jimo), Malabu, Bata of Ribaw, Bata of Demsa, Bata of Garoua, Jirai Batta, Gbwata 26,400 (1952), est. 2,000 in Cameroon; 39,000 total (1971 Welmers) Adamawa State, Numan, Song, Fufore and Mubi LGAs; also in Cameroon
Fali cluster Bata Fali Fali of Mubi, Fali of Muchella Vimtim, Yimtim 4 principal villages. Estimate of more than 20,000 (1990) Adamawa State, Mubi LGA
Vin Bata Fali Uroovin Uvin Vimtim Vimtim town, north of Mubi
Huli Bata Fali Bahuli Urahuli Huli, Hul Bahuli town, northeast of Mubi
Madzarin Bata Fali Ura Madzarin Madzarin Muchella Muchella town, northeast of Mubi
Ɓween Bata Fali Uramɓween Cumɓween Bagira Bagira town, northeast of Mubi
Gudu Bata Gutu, Gudo 1,200 (LA 1971) Adamawa State, Song LGA, 120 km. west of Song. Approximately 5 villages.
Guɗe Bata Gude, Goudé Mubi Cheke, Tcheke, Mapuda, Shede, Tchade, Mapodi, Mudaye, Mocigin, Motchekin 28,000 (1952), est. 20,000 in Cameroon Adamawa State, Mubi LGA; Borno State, Askira–Uba LGA; and in Cameroon
Holma Bata Holma Da Holmaci Bali Holma 4 speakers (Blench, 1987). The language has almost vanished and has been replaced by Fulfulde. Adamawa State. Spoken north of Sorau on the Cameroon border
Ngwaba Bata Gombi, Goba Fewer than 1000 Adamawa State, Gombi LGA, at Fachi and Gudumiya
Nzanyi Bata Paka, Rogede (Rɨgudede), Nggwoli, Hoode, Maiha, Magara, Dede, Mutidi; and Lovi in Cameroon Njanyi, Njai, Njei, Zany, Nzangi, Zani, Njeny, Jeng, Njegn, Njeng, Nzangɨ sg., Nzanyi pl. Jenge, Jeng, Mzangyim, Kobochi, Kobotshi 1.B Wur Nzanyi 14,000 in Nigeria (1952), 9,000 in Cameroon. Nigeria: Adamawa State, Maiha LGA. Cameroon: West of Dourbeye near Nigerian border in Doumo region, Mayo-Oulo Subdivision, Mayo-Louti Division, North Province.
Zizilivәkan Bata Zilivә ÀmZírív Fali of Jilbu ‘a few hundred’ in Cameroon Adamawa State, Mubi LGA, Jilbu town; and in Cameroon

Arewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Language Branch Cluster Dialects Alternate spellings Own name for language Endonym(s) Other names (location-based) Other names for language Exonym(s) Speakers Location(s) Notes
Huba Bura Luwa Hәba Huba Huba Chobba Kilba 32,000 (1952); 100,000 (1980 UBS) Adamawa State, Hong, Maiha, Mubi and Gombi LGAs
Margi Bura Central: Margi babal = ‘Margi of the Plain’ around Lasa, Margi Dzәrŋu = ‘Margi near the Hill öu’ around Gulak; Gwàrà; Mə̀lgwí (Mulgwe, Molgheu); Wúrgà (Urga); South Margi is counted as a separate language and is more closely related to Huba Marghi, Margyi Màrgí Màrgí For Margi, Margi South and Putai: 135,000 (1955); 200,000 (1987 UBS) Borno State, Askira–Uba and Damboa LGAs; Adamawa State, Madagali, Mubi and Michika LGAs
Nggwahyi Bura Ngwaxi, Ngwohi One village Borno State, Askira–Uba LGA
Putai Bura Margi West Margi Putai = ‘West Margi’, Margi of Minthla Language dying out, but ethnic population large Borno State, Damboa LGA
Margi South Bura Wamdiu, Hildi Margi ti ntәm For Margi, Margi South and Putai: 135,000 (1955) Borno State, Askira–Uba LGA; Adamawa State, Mubi and Michika LGAs Hoffmann (1963) relates the language of Margi South to Huba rather than to Margi.
Bura–Pabir Bura Bura Pela (Hill Bura), Bura Hyil Hawul (Plains Bura) Bourrah, Burra, Babir, Babur Mya Bura Two peoples with one language: the Bura and the Pabir Kwojeffa, Huve, Huviya 72,200 (1952 W&B), 250,000 (1987 UBS) Borno State, Biu and Askira–Uba LGAs
Cibak Bura Chibak, Chibuk, Chibbuk, Chibbak, Kyibaku, Kibaku Cíbɔ̀k, Kikuk 20,000 (1973 SIL) Borno State, Damboa LGA, south of Damboa town
Kamwe Higi Nkafa, Dakwa (Bazza), Sәna, Wula, Futu, Tili Pte, Kapsiki (Ptsәkɛ) in Cameroon Vәcәmwe Higi, Hiji, Kapsiki 64,000 (1952); 180,000 (1973 SIL) est. 23,000 in Cameroon Adamawa State, Michika LGA and into Cameroon
Mukta Higi Kamwe Mukta Mukta village Adamawa State
Kirya-Konzәl cluster Higi Kirya-Konzәl Fali Adamawa State, Michika LGA.
Kirya Higi Kirya-Konzәl myá Kákíryà ndá Kákìryà pl. Kákìryà Fali of Kiriya 7,000 est. 2007. Kirya: 13 villages
Konzәl Higi Kirya-Konzәl myá Kónzә̀l ndá Kónzә̀l pl. Kónzә̀l Fali of Mijilu 9000 est. 2007. Konzәl: 15 villages
Cinene Mandara Cinene Cinene 3200 (Kim 2001) Borno State, Gwoza LGA, east of Gwoza town in the mountains. 5 villages.
Dghweɗe Mandara Dghwede, Hude, Johode, Dehoxde, Tghuade, Toghwede, Traude Dghwéɗè Azaghvana, Wa’a, Zaghvana 19,000 (1963), 7,900 (TR 1970), 30,000 (1980 UBS) Borno State, Gwoza LGA
Guduf–Cikide cluster Mandara Guduf–Cikide Afkabiye (Lamang) 21,300 (1963) Borno State, Gwoza LGA, east of Gwoza town in the mountains. Six main villages.
Guduf Mandara Guduf–Cikide Guduf, Cikide (Chikide) Kәdupaxa Ɓuxe, Gbuwhe, Latәghwa (Lamang), Lipedeke (Lamang). Also applied to Dghwede.
Gava Mandara Guduf–Cikide Gawa Kәdupaxa Linggava, Ney Laxaya, Yaghwatadaxa, Yawotataxa, Yawotatacha, Yaxmare, Wakura
Cikide Mandara Guduf–Cikide Cikide Cikide
Gvoko Mandara Gәvoko Ngoshe Ndaghang, Ngweshe Ndhang, Nggweshe Ngoshe Sama 2,500 (1963); 4,300 (1973 SIL); estimated more than 20,000 (1990) Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA
Lamang cluster Mandara Lamang Laamang Waha 15,000 (TR 1970), 40,000 (1963)
Zaladva Mandara Lamang Zaladeva (Alataghwa), Dzuuɓa (Dzuuba), Lәghva (Lughva), Gwózà Wakane (Gwozo) Zәlәdvә Lamang North Borno State, Gwoza LGA
Ghumbagha Mandara Lamang Hә̀ɗkàlà (Xәdkala, Hidkala, Hitkala), Waga (Wagga, Woga, Waha) Lamang Central Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA;
Ghudavan Mandara Lamang Ghudeven, Ghudәvәn Lamang South Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA; and in Cameroon
Glavda Mandara Ngoshe (Ngweshe) Galavda, Glanda, Gelebda, Gәlәvdә Wakura 20,000 (1963); 2,800 in Cameroon (1982 SIL) Borno State, Gwoza LGA; also in Cameroon
Hdi Mandara Hidé, Hide, Xide, Xedi Xәdi Gra, Tur, Turu, Tourou, Ftour Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA; and in Cameroon
Vemgo–Mabas cluster Mandara Vemgo–Mabas
Vemgo Mandara Vemgo–Mabas Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA; and in Cameroon
Mabas Mandara Vemgo–Mabas A single village on the Nigeria/Cameroon frontier Adamawa State, Michika LGA. 10 km. S.E. of Madagali
Wandala cluster Mandara Wandala Mandara, Ndara 19,300 in Nigeria (1970); 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL) Borno State. Bama, Gwoza LGAs.
Wandala Mandara Wandala Wandala Mandara Used as a vehicular language in this locality of Nigeria and Cameroon
Mura Mandara Wandala Mura Mora, Kirdi Mora An archaic form of Wandala spoken by non–Islamized populations Uncertain if Mura is spoken in Nigeria
Malgwa Mandara Wandala Gwanje Mәlgwa Malgo, Gamargu, Gamergu 10,000 (TR 1970) Borno State, Damboa, Gwoza and Konduga LGAs
Afaɗә Mandage Afade, Affade, Afadee Afaɗә Kotoko, Mogari Twelve villages in Nigeria, estimate Fewer than 20,000 (1990) Borno State, Ngala LGA; and in Cameroon
Jilbe Mandage Jilbe ? 100 speakers (Tourneux p.c. 1999) Borno State, a single village on the Nigeria Cameroon border, south of Dikwa
Yedina Yedina Yedina, Kuri (not in Nigeria) Yídә́nà Buduma 20,000 in Chad; 25,000 total (1987 SIL) Borno State, islands of Lake Chad and mostly in Chad

Lambobi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kwatanta lambobi a cikin kowane yare:

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
A, A.1, Eastern Boga (Boka) ɨrtà cə̀p məkkən fwəɗà ɗurmən tyɛ̀xxɛɬ mwut fwotfwə̀ɗà (2 x 4) hàhìrta (10 – 1) kum
A, A.1, Eastern Ga'anda ar̃ta (r̃ is a trill) sur̃r̃i mahkə̀n fwəɗà ɗɨrmən mɪca mwùt(n) fwətfwəɗà (2 x 4) wə̀nhəhəʔar̃tà (10 – 1) ? kum
A, A.1, Eastern Hwana (Hwona) tìtal suɣurì maxə̀n faɗà tuf(ù) mɪ̀ki mɨɗ(u) (w)ùvwəɗà (2 x 4) wùtàrè (10 – 1) ? ɡumdìɗi / kum
A, A.1, Western Tera (1) dà / da rāp / rap kúnúŋ / kununɡ vàt / vat qúrmún / qurmun ⁿjòŋ / njoŋ mút / mut mʲāsī / myaasi mɨ̄ɮām / mu̠dlam ɡʷàŋ / ɡwanɡ
A, A.1, Western Tera (2) da rab kunuk fad ɠurmun njoŋ mut miyasi milam ɡwan
A, A.2 Nggwahyi (Ngwaxi) tə̀ŋ sɪɗà makùr̃ fwə̀r̃ tufù nkwɔ̀ mur̃fà ncis mɪða kuma
A, A.2, 1 Bura (Bura-Pabir) (1) ntànɡ sùɗà màkə̀r fwàr ntìfù nkwà mùrfà cìsù ùmðlà kùmà
A, A.2, 1 Bura (Bura-Pabir) (2) ntaŋ suɗà makùr̃ fwar̃ ntufù ŋ̀kwà murfà ncɨsù ḿðà kuma
A, A.2, 1 Cibak (Bura-Pabir) tə̀ŋ / patù / dukù sudæ̀ makùr̃ fwòɗu tufù ŋ̀kwà murɨfwæ̀ ntsisù mɨðæ kuma
A, A.2, 1 Putai (West Margi) duku / təŋ / duɡu suɗà / fɨɗɛ̀ makùr fɔɗu / fwoɗu tufù kwa / kwɔ̀ muɗufā / muɗɨfɛ̀ cisù / ncɪsù ḿðà / mðɛ̀ kuma / kumɛ
A, A.2, 2 Huba (Kilba) dzàŋ mətlù màkə̀r / màkərù fòɗù tùfù kwà məɗəfà cìsù dlà kùmà / kùm
A, A.2, 2 Central Marghi taŋ / paɬu / tɪtɨkù mɨɬù / sɪɗàŋ makùr̃ fwoɗù ntɪfù ŋ̀kwà mɪɗɪfù ntsisù ḿðù kumu
A, A.3 Bana (1) tánə̀ bákə̀ máhə̀kánə̀ fáɗə̀ cífə̀ kwáŋ bə̀rfàŋ də̀ɣə̀sə̀ mə̀ɬísɗə̀ mə̀ŋ
A, A.3 Bana (2) kwətiŋ bakə mahkan faɗə cifə kwaŋ mbərfəŋ dəghəs məsliɗ məŋ
A, A.3 Hya (Higi Ghye) paðɛ / tanɛ ɓaɡɛ màŋkɛ fwaɗɛ wcivi kwaŋəy mbùr̃ùfəŋəy tùɡùzi wɨɬti mùŋəy
A, A.3 Kafa (1) ʔìkkòó ɡùttòó kèèmó áwùddò ʔùùttʃòó ʃírìttòó ʃábààttòó ʃímìttòó jììtʼijòó ààʃìròó
A, A.3 Kafa (2) ʔikko ɡutto keemo ʔauddo ʔuutʃtʃo ʃiritto ʃabaatto ʃimitto jiitʼijo ʔaaʃiro
A, A.3 Kafa (3) ʔikko ɡutto keemo auddo uuččo širitto šabaatto šimitto yiitʼtʼio aaširo
A, A.3 Kwame (Fali of Kiria) ɡutàn / tanəy ɓwukuʔ màkun(u) fwaɗùʔ (w)cɪfuʔ ŋkwaŋ mbùrùfūŋ tùɣùsùʔ ǹwɬti(ʔyì) ɡwùm(ù)
A, A.3 Psikye (Kapsiki) kwetɛŋe bake mahekene wəfaɗe mcɛfe ŋkwaŋe mberefaŋe deɡhese mesli meŋe
A, A.4, Lamang Hadi (Hdi) tèkw hìs hə̀kə̀n fwáɗ hùtáf mə̀kúʔ ndə̀fáŋ tə̀ɣás tə̀mbáy / timbe ɣwàŋ
A, A.4, Lamang Lamang tíuwá / tálá χésá χ̀kə́ná ùfáɗá χẁtáfá m̀kwá / m̀kuwá ə̀lfáŋá tə̀ɣásá tə̀mbáyá ɣwáŋá
A, A.4, Lamang Vemgo-Mabas pál / tékw hés xə̀kə̀n úfáɗ xútáf ŋ́ku lə̀fàŋ tə̀ɣàs tə̀mbàj ɣə̀wàŋ
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Cinene pàlà bùʷà xə̀kə̀rɗà ùfàɗà ɮɨ̀ɓà ŋkʷàxà ùɗifà tə̀ɣsà vaslambàɗà klawà
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Dghwede tɨtɨkwì, tekwè micè xəkùrè fiɗì ðiɓi ŋ́kwe wuɗìfi təɣə̀še / təxəse təmbə̀ ɣwàŋɡa
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Glavda páll bwa xkərɗ ufáɗ ɮəɓ ŋkwax uɗif tə́xs vaslambaɗ klàáwá
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Guduf-Gava tekʷè / kitakʷè mitsè xəkərɗè ùfəɗè ɮɨ̀ɓè ŋkʷaxè ùɗifè tə̀ɣəsè vaslambàɗè kuləkè
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Gvoko palò / tekò xecò xəkʷarò fwaɗò ɮaʔò ŋkoyò ntfaŋɡò tə̀ɣasò tɨ̀mbayò ɣʷaŋɡò
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara Wandala (Malgwa) pálle búwa kəɠyé ufáɗe iiɮəbé unkwé vúye tiise másə́lmane kəláwa
A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Podoko Podoko kutəra səra makəra ufaɗa zlama məkuwa maɗəfa za metɨrəce jɨma
A, A.5 Cuvok (Tchouvok) (1) ámə̀tà át͡ʃèw máákàr fáɗ ɮám máákwà tásə̀là t͡ʃáákàr t͡ʃʉ́ɗ kùràw
A, A.5 Cuvok (Tchouvok) (2) amta, mta ɛt͡ʃəw maakar faɗ ɮam makwa tasəla tsaakar t͡ʃyɗ kuraw
A, A.5 Dugwor bek səla makar məfaɗ zlam mukwa tsela tsaamakar tseuɗ kurow
A, A.5 Zulgo-Gemzek ilík súla màkər əfáɗ ə̀zləm ndílík təsəlá tsàmàkə̀r tswíɗ kúrwá
A, A.5 North Giziga ɓlà cêw màːkàr m̀fàɗ ɮòm mérkêɗ tàːrnà dàːɡàfàɗ nɡòltêr krô
A, A.5 South Giziga plá cúw máakə̀r mə̀fáɗ ɮúm mérkéɗ tàrnà dàaŋɡàfáɗ (2 x 4) ? nɡòltír kúrú
A, A.5 Mada ftek séla mahkaɾ wfaàë zzlaèm mokkoà slaasélaà slalahkaàr oàboèlmboè dzmoèkw
A, A.5 Mafa sə́táɗ cew / cecew makár fáɗ zlám mokwa tsáraɗ tsamakaɗ cœ́ɗ kula
A, A.5 Matal (1) dì / tēkùlā sɨ̄là màkɨ̀r ùfàɗ ɨ̀ɮù mùkʷā mɨ̀ɗɨf m̀tìɡìʃ làdɨ̀ɡà kùlù
A, A.5 Matal (2) dìì / tékùlá sə̀là mákə̀r úfàɗ ə́ɮùw mə̀kwá mə̀də̀f mə̀tə̀ɡìʃ ládə̀ɡá kùlù
A, A.5 Mbuko kərtek tsew maakaŋ fuɗo ɗara mbərka tsuwɓe dzəmaakaŋ dəsuɗo kuro
A, A.5 Mefele mə̀tá cécèw màhkár fwàɗ ɮàm mòkwá tsə̀làɗ t͡ʃáhkàr t͡ʃʉ́ɗ dùmbók
A, A.5 Merey nə̀tê súlò màkàr fàɗ ɮàm m̀kô tàsə́là tsàːmàːkàr cö̂ɗ krôw
A, A.5 Mofu-Gudur teɗ / ték (counting), pál (enumation) t͡sew máakar məfaɗ ɮam maakwáw maasála daaŋɡafaɗ ɮam-leték / ɮam-leteɗ kúráw
A, A.5 North Mofu nettey suho makar fáɗ ɮàm mukó taasə́lá tsamakàŋ tsəɗ kuro
A, A.5 Moloko bɪ̀lɛ́ŋ tʃɛ́w màkáɾ ùfáɗ / mɔ̀fáɗ ɮɔ̀m mʊ̀kʷɔ̀ ʃɪ̀sɛ́ɾɛ́ ɬálákáɾ hɔ́lɔ́mbɔ́ kʷʊ̀ɾɔ́
A, A.5 Muyang bílìŋ tʃỳ màhkə̄r fāɗ ɮàm mʊ̀kʷū ādə́skə̄lā āɮáláxkə̄r āmbʊ́lmbō krū
A, A.5 Ouldeme (Wuzlam) ʃɛ̄lɛ́ŋ brɛ̄tʃâw / tʃâw mākár mə̄fáɗ ɮàm mōkō sə̄sə̄lā fə̄rfáɗ álɓìt kōlō
A, A.5 Vame (Pelasla) ɓìlɛ́ tʃâw máŋɡàn fúːɗàw ɗáːrà márkà tʃíɓà ʒíːrɛ̀ táhkɛ̀ dʒɛm
A, A.6 Sukur (1) kə̀lí bák ma̋ken fwáɗ ɮám mʊ́kwà máɗáf tə̀kə̀z míçí / míɬí ʔwàn
A, A.6 Sukur (2) tá.í bákʼ máːkə̀n fwáɗ ɮám mə́kkwà máɗaf tə́kkəz məɬi wàŋ
A, A.7 Buwal tɛ́ŋɡʷʊ̄lɛ̀ŋ ɡ͡bɑ́k mɑ̄xkɑ́t̚ ŋ̀fɑ́t̚ dzɑ̄ɓɑ́n ŋ̀ʷkʷɑ́x ŋ̀ʃɪ́lɛ́t̚ dzɑ̄mɑ̄xkɑ̄t̚ (5 + 3) dzɑ́fɑ́t̚ (5 + 4) wɑ́m
A, A.7 Daba takan səray makaɗ faɗ jeɓin koh cesireɗ cəfaɗcəfaɗ (4 + 4) dərfatakan (10 - 1) ɡuɓ təɓa təɓa
A, A.7 Gavar ŋ̀tɑ́t̚ ɡ͡bɑ̀k mɑ̄xkɑ̀t̚ ŋ̀fɑ̄t̚ dzɑ̄ɓə̄n ŋ̀kʷɑ́x ŋ̀ʃɪ́lít̚ dzɑ̄mɑ̄xkɑ̄t̚ (5 + 3) dzɑ́ŋfɑ́t̚ (5 + 4) wɑ̄m
A, A.7 Mbedam ntɑɗ bɑk mɑxkɑɗ mfɑɗ dʒəɓɑn ŋkwɑx diʃliɗ dʒɑmɑxkɑɗ (5 + 3) tsɑfɑɗ (5 + 4) wɑm
A, A.7 Mina (Hina) ǹtá suloɗ mahkaɗ mfáɗ dzəbuŋ ǹkú dìsùlùɗ fáɗfáɗ (2 x 4) varkanta ɡə̀ɓ
A, A.8 Bacama (Bachama) hiɗò k͡pe ḿwɔ̀kun fwət tuf tukwə̀ltaka (5 + 1) tukòluk͡pe (5 + 2) fwɔ̂fwət (2 x 4) ɗɔ̀mbiɗò (10 - 1) bə̌w
A, A.8 Fali (Fali of Mucella) tɛ̀n / ʔar̃mə bek / buk màxk(u) fwəɗ tuf yiɗə̀w mbùr̃fuŋ tùɣus mɪ̀ðɪŋ ɡùm
A, A.8 Gude tèen / rûŋ bə̀ráʔy màkk ǹfwáɗ tə́f kùwà mə̀ɗə̀f tə̀ɣə́s ìllíŋ puʔ
A, A.8 Gudu (Gudo) ǰə́ŋ bœ̀k māːkə́n fwád tùf kwǎ mīskàtā fɔ̄rfwād (2 x 4) žīɛ́tə́pə̀n
A, A.8 Jimi (Mwulyen) híɗò / tɛ̂n búk / bíkə̌ mwàkɨ́n / maxkə́n fwad / fwátʼ túhf / tɯ́f túkwàldèáká / bə̌rfǐŋ túkwàlóʔpé / tɯ̀ʁɯ́s fwáfwàɗ (2 x 4) / mìɮíɲ táàmbíɗò / pó?
A, A.8 Nzanyi hɪɗè buk mɨ̀dɨfəl fwət tuf kwɔx mɨ̀skatə̀ fwəfwaɗè (2 x 4) təmɓeɗè pu
A, A.8 Zizilivakan lɪm sul màxku fwəy mùxtyup ŋ̀kwaʔ mbùrfìŋ tə̀ɣìs mɨ̀ðì ɡumù
B, B.1, Buduma Buduma (Yedina) ɡə̀tté ɡàkə́nnə́ híɡáy híŋɟì hə̀ràkkə́ tùlwár wósə́kə́ hílíɡár hákkán
B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Afade sə́rə̀jā sɗā ɡàrkə̀ ɡàɗē ʃìʃí və̀nārkə̄ (2 x 3) kàtùl vìyāɗē (2 x 4) dìʃẽ̄ χkàn
B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Mpade pál ɡāsì ɡòkúrò ɡāɗè ʃénsī ʃéskótē túlùr < Kanuri jìlìɡàɗè (2 x 4) jìàtálà kán
B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Lagwan sə́ɣdia, tkú χsɗá ɡǎχkər ɡǎɗe ʃēʃí vɛnǎχkər / vɛnǎχəkər (2 x 3) kátul vɛɲáɗe (2 x 4) diʔiʃén χkan
B, B.2 Mbara kítáy, ɗów mòk ùhú púɗú íɬím ɬírá mìɡzàk / mùɡizàk mìsílày / mùsílày wáːŋá dòːɡò / dòk
B, B.2 Musgu kítáy, ɗáw súlú púɗú ɬím ɬàːrà mìɡzàk / mùɡzàk mìtwìs / mìtìs tíklá dòːɡò
C Gidar tákà súlà hókù póɗò ɬé ɬré bùhúl dòdòpórò (2 x 4) ? váyták (10 - 1)  ? kláù

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Biu–Mandara". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Gravina, Richard. 2014. Proto-Central Chadic Lexicon. Webonary.
  3. Gravina, R. (2014). The phonology of Proto-Central Chadic: the reconstruction of the phonology and lexicon of Proto-Central Chadic, and the linguistic history of the Central Chadic languages (Doctoral dissertation, LOT: Utrecht).
  4. Languages are closer to each other than are those of the northern branch
  5. Blench, 2006. The Afro-Asiatic Languages: Classification and Reference List (ms)